As the world enters an aging society, the issue of housing for the elderly is not limited to Korea. Italy (23%), which has a high proportion of senior citizens, followed by Japan (28.4% aging), faced a difficult situation even for the middle class, with real estate prices skyrocketing as housing provision for socially vulnerable groups declined due to reduced public housing investment.
On the other hand, Japan, which entered the ultra-aging society early on, is pursuing a housing policy focusing on the welfare policy of the elderly. It is a system that takes into account that the majority of healthy elderly people do not want to be restricted in physical freedom at the facility, and want to continue living in familiar areas. Hong Kong has a similar proportion of elderly people to Korea, but it is ahead in terms of welfare for the elderly.
Japan expands support for self-supporting homes away from facilities
The number of elderly people over 65 in Japan is 3588 million as of last year and 28.4% of the total population (1,261.7 million), the highest in the world. As the number of long-lived people increases and the number of unmarried people increases, the share of the elderly living alone accounts for 10% of the entire household. Japan, which faced such an aging issue earlier, has steadily improved the policy of housing for the elderly, and recently is promoting the housing policy for the elderly through welfare policies focused on beneficiaries rather than suppliers.
There are three types of elderly housing in Japan: △ care-type (caring-type) elderly facilities, △ self-supporting elderly facilities, △ self-supporting elderly housing. In the past, most of nursing-care facilities were centered on nursing homes, but recently, considering that most healthy elderly people prefer independent living, they switched to self-supporting housing-oriented housing policies.
There are many types of self-supporting elderly housing. ‘Silver housing’ is a rental housing provided by local public organizations, etc. for the elderly and elderly couples living alone or below a certain income over 60 years of age. Considering the characteristics of the elderly’s life, we provide housing equipped with facilities, and provide a living counseling center and life support services in the complex.
‘Excellent rental housing for the elderly (UR urban organization housing for the elderly)’ is a method of supplying a part of the existing private apartment complexes, mainly the first floor, as rental housing for the elderly. It reduced the burden on the vulnerable by reducing the monthly rent of households below a certain income or by allowing them to pay the pensions paid by their lifetime pension insurance as monthly rent.
For example, according to a study by the LH Land and Housing Research Institute on the “ supply direction of public rental housing in response to an aging society, ” the Toyoshikidai Complex (1964), located in Kashiwa City, Chiba Prefecture, had over 40 years since its construction, and the area has declined and the aging rate has increased. Exceeded 4%. In 2004, the Urban Regeneration Organization (UR), Tokyo University, and Kisawa City cooperated to rebuild the existing low-rise apartment building into a high-rise apartment building, and expanded the home medical facilities for the elderly to a complex that responds to an aging society.
However, self-reliance housing for senior citizens should take priority in securing housing because they use private rental housing, but it is not easy to secure them in large cities, so it is only 0.5% of the total housing policy.
Hong Kong, where 54% of elderly people live in public housing
In Hong Kong, the housing problem is so serious that it is difficult for the middle class to have a home, but the story is different in terms of welfare for the elderly. As of 2016, the population aged 65 years and over was 15.9%, similar to Korea’s aging rate (13.6%) during the same period. However, in the area of public rental housing for the elderly, the amount of support is much larger than that of Korea.
Housing welfare is mainly provided by the welfare and housing departments. If the welfare center is centered on facilities such as nursing homes, the housing department provides rental housing for the elderly who can live independently.
Because it supports the elderly to preferentially live in public housing, senior citizens living alone, elderly households, and elderly dependents can enter public housing if they meet certain conditions, such as living in Hong Kong for more than 7 years. Thanks to this, 54% of the elderly in Hong Kong are stable enough to live in public housing. In public housing, leisure and medical support for the elderly is also provided, and life is available.
In particular, according to traditional Asian values, policy consideration is given to seniors to live close to their families.
There are two types of public housing: HSC for the elderly and small-sized rental housing. HSC has △ HS1 (general housing complex low-rise reconstruction) △ HS2 (use of the upper part of shopping malls and parking lots), △ HS3 (small family housing), but recently, the preference for small space and personal privacy has declined. Focusing on construction.
If you do not want public rental housing, you may be eligible for housing assistance. In Hong Kong, 1.3% of the elderly are receiving subsidized housing costs, such as deductions for cash rent in private apartments instead of public rental housing.